Search engine optimization from A to Z

by Rajiv Gupta January 28, 2019

the theme of search engine optimization (SEO for Search Engine Optimization ) is complex: there are indeed many technical terms from different areas within this discipline of SEO. As a beginner in the field, notions like SEO juice, SERPs or backlinks do not speak for themselves. Discover below an SEO lexicon bringing together the most important terms to know in the discipline of SEO.

Anchor text

The anchor text, anchor text or anchor in French, is a clickable text of a hyperlink embedded in a web page. When we click on the anchor text, we are directed to its target URL. This type of link is often put forward visually. The anchor text and the target URL are shown separately, the reader will see the anchor text that was chosen on a web page but not the URL.

In the source text, the URL of the anchortext is integrated as follows:

<a href=”www.unexempledesiteWebsite”> Anchortext </a>

In the example above, the reader sees only the term “Anchortext”.  

In the field of web referencing, we differentiate several kinds of links:

  • A Brand Anchor text (Brand or Target Domain in Name)
  • Monetary Anchor text (contains a keyword related to money)
  • Combination of anchor text (combination of monetary and brand keyword)
  • Anchor text without mark or money (contains neither mark nor money, there are for example links in this form: “Click here”)

Duplicate content

Some content is called duplicate content when it is very similar or identical to the content of other web pages. Duplicate content has a negative influence on search engine rankings, which is why we must refrain from this practice. Google prefers high quality and especially unique content. If the crawler finds identical content on different web pages, the one that will be disadvantaged by the search engines will be the one that will have published the duplicated content last. As part of optimization measures for search engines, duplicate content is targeted and replaced.

Crawler (collector or indexing robot)

A crawler (also known as a collector, indexing robot, web spider) automatically searches the Web for specific criteria of Web pages to analyze. The crawler acts autonomously and automatically repeats the task assigned to him. Search engines like Google use these robots ( search bots ) to maintain their index. Thus, the new Web pages are quickly listed because the existing index is constantly renewed.

Internal links

The internal link of a website will refer to another page of that same website. Internal links are also part of the most important tools of SEO optimization. In the first place, sensible and well-placed referrals provide added value for the reader. The latter goes in this way find more quickly the information sought. In addition, the structure of a website is optimized through relevant internal links. This relevant structure is also a quality factor according to Google’s evaluation criteria. Google’s index reads this internal structure of links and takes it into account in its ranking.

Return link

A return link is defined by a link from a website A to a site B. These inbound links are important to improve its web presence because they positively influence the ranking of the site on the search engines. A link back to a reliable, trusted and relevant web page (quality factors established by Google) counts as a recommendation for Google, which will increase the index of trust and therefore the SEO of the web page. The higher this trust value is for a website, the more the links from this site will be valued by Google. The backlink profile of a website (number and quality of links) is one of the most important ranking factors for Google and other search engines: this is a central point of SEO optimization.

Link building

The link building (also called weaving in French) describes the targeted building profiles backlinks (links back). A successful link building strategy results from an increase in the number and quality of backlinks. The return links are exclusively external links, the optimization does not take place on the web page itself but through the various contacts and connections with third-party web pages. Accumulating such recommendations from external sites via backlinks is one of the most important tasks of optimization for search engines in Offpage(also called Off-site). This is an SEO optimization where the site is not modified per se, but rather its “environment”). Google values websites that have a relevant and reliable backlink network in its rankings, hence the importance of link building.

Link Juice

The link juice, or “SEO juice” in French, is determined by the distribution of backlinks on a website. The number of links as well as their quality (strength, reputation) contributes to this SEO juice. This link juice can be transmitted through a link from site A to site B. The better the source of a link back is evaluated by Google, the more it will transmit “positive juice” to the target page.

Meta Description

The meta description is a short text (up to about 156 characters), which describes the contents of an HTML document. It must indicate the orientation of the content to the user in only two sentences. The meta description appears in the search engine results list (SERPs) as part of a snippet under the title. If the webmaster does not include a meta description on his website, Google will automatically do it for him by taking the first sentences of the home page or by selecting portions of phrases around keywords. As part of  SEO optimization, meta tags ( Meta-Tagscomposed of a description, a title, and keywords) must not only be user-friendly but also contain keywords with high search volume. These are deposited in the header of an HTML document.  

Updated Panda

The Panda update, also known as Google Panda, was installed in 2011. It included a permanent change in Google’s search engine optimization algorithm, which is a fundamental change in search engine optimization. Because of this update, web pages with poor content have seen their SEO drop considerably. The backlink-profile is not the only relevant SEO factor built into this update. Indeed the bounce rate is also calculated by Google, as the duration of the visit to a site or appreciation of the content. While unique, high-quality content that adds value to readers is valued in search results, content that is duplicated and contains too many keywords is punished. Since the Panda update, the quality of the content has a much greater influence on the SERPs (search results), hence the use of the leitmotiv “content is king”.

Update Penguin

The Penguin update is strictly speaking a series of updates to Google’s algorithms, which stretched between April 2012 and October 2014. Just like the Panda update, this update had a great influence on SEO analysis. The goal of these search engine leader updates is to control link spam and prevent the manipulation of results. research, so that these are the most adapted to the expectations of the users. These new algorithms have been developed to counter site optimizations for unnatural, legitimate and fair search engines, namely: excessive link building, excessive keyword usage, and irrelevant link networking. Google’s Webmaster Guidelines prohibit these web-based spam techniques. Whoever does not respect them will see his site penalized by Google on his search engine.


The Money-Keyword concept is used in English to characterize key terms that have a high volume of research and therefore also strong competition. For example, “buy shoes” or “cheap smartphone”. Of course, online stores want to be well referenced with these highly sought-after keywords. If your site appears at the top of the list of search results, potential customers will find you much more easily. Many of these most popular keywords already reflect a buying intention. In the case of research “buy shoes”, the user wants to buy shoes, but he still does not know where. For paid search (SEA), these popular keywords generate a high cost per click (CPC). In the field of search engine optimization, these ”  Money-Keywords” Are to be used with vigilance. Indeed, those who abuse these keywords can find themselves sanctioned by Google.


A keyword can be a simple word summarizing particularly the guideline of content or a combination of several words. In the context of search engine optimization, a keyword is a typical term most users will search for in order to find information on a particular topic. A webpage must often be optimized with specific keywords so that the corresponding searches made by the Internet users make appear the Web page in question as high as possible among the results of the search engines.


Using the “nofollow” attribute, Google can be told not to take into account the target links of your page so as not to influence its referencing. To do this, the rel = “nofollow” attribute is added to the link in the HTML code. When Google introduced this attribute in 2005, Webmasters were asked to mark links that were not editorial by the “nofollow” attribute. In doing so, any backlink profile manipulation should be impossible and link spam, which was a widespread practice in the past, has been stymied. As a general rule, nofollow links have a natural linkage profile today and are thus taken into account in SEO analysis.  

Landing page

A landing page is a web page that has been developed to answer a marketing and promotional issue. Through an SEO optimization, a landing page is adapted thanks to very specific keywords so as to be placed in the first results of the most relevant and current research with respect to the content of the site. A landing page can be considered as a digital flyer, on which one wishes to sell a particular product or service. Essential content, information, and call-to-action invitations must be represented on this page.  


Google’s penalties are defined by penalties imposed on a website in connection with its presence on the search engine of the Web giant. These sanctions can be manual, but also algorithmic. The visibility index of a site is reduced by Google and its ranking is significantly deteriorated in the search results (SERPs). In general, any failure to follow Google’s instructions leads to such penalties.

SEO Black Hat

The Black Hat SEO defines a questionable optimization strategy for search engines. The name comes from the cinematographic genre of Western, where the villain often wears a black hat in opposition to the kind, who wears a white hat. We talk about unethical web referencing. Yet these guidelines are consciously ignored by search engines like Google or Bing. Of spam practices or the use of a link wheel (links purchased from abroad) are widely used in the creation of links. If such methods are discovered, the pages in question are excluded from the index of the search engines.

SEO On-page

What is called SEO On-page characterizes all the measures in SEO Web, which have a direct link with the Web site, is all that one finds there. Optimizing a page is here in the hands of the Webmaster only, not a third party. This is mainly about the orientation of the content (search for relevant keywords) and content optimization. However, structural and technical aspects are also taken into account as part of SEO On-page optimization.

SEO Off-page

The SEO Off-page takes care of measures that are not relevant to what is visible and present on the Web. This concerns all external factors (especially backlinks ) that influence the ranking of websites on search engines. Since the backlinkprofile is a central ranking factor, most of the Off-page efforts are therefore in the form of links. For this, different strategies are used.

Learn more about the On-Page and Off-page SEO theme in our Digital Guide to the Basics of Search Engine Optimization .


SERP is the acronym for ”  Search Engine Result Page“, the search engine results page. A list is presented on the SERPs based on user searches and contains Snippets (title, link and meta description) used to summarize each result. The classification is made according to the relevance of each site. This relevance is determined by the search engines through certain factors such as user evaluations, backlinks network (backlinks), or the duration of the visit of users on a site. The goal of all the measures taken in SEO optimization is to be at the top of the search results of its potential customers.

SEO White Hat

The White Hat SEO is, as the name suggests, the opposite of Black Hat SEO. Here, Google’s guidelines are strictly adhered to. The SEO White Hat is indeed detached from any tactic of spamming. Between these two different “schools”, we find the SEO Gray Hat. This last method is the most used in the field of optimization for search engines. It is an in-between where the Webmasters respect in principle the instructions of Google, but where they also take some liberties by using some tips that are not accepted by Google.


The Title-tag includes the title that will represent the website on the search engines. The user can directly access the website via this link in the form of a title. A short, precise and convincing formulation is essential to obtain a click rate up to your ambitions. The Title-Tag is one of Google’s SEO factors and is therefore considered in the optimization for On-page search engines. A single title should be associated with each URL and ideally, this title should highlight the main keyword of the content.

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